YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Leash with Padded National products H Comfortable Dog H,with,favelasustentavel.org,Padded,Feet,Comfortable,Leash,Durable,Pack,$24,Pet Supplies , Dogs , Collars, Harnesses Leashes,/racebook-review/churchill-downs,of,Dog,4,2,YOT $24 YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Dog Leash with Comfortable Padded H Pet Supplies Dogs Collars, Harnesses Leashes YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Leash with Padded National products H Comfortable Dog H,with,favelasustentavel.org,Padded,Feet,Comfortable,Leash,Durable,Pack,$24,Pet Supplies , Dogs , Collars, Harnesses Leashes,/racebook-review/churchill-downs,of,Dog,4,2,YOT $24 YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Dog Leash with Comfortable Padded H Pet Supplies Dogs Collars, Harnesses Leashes

YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Max 64% OFF Feet Leash with Padded National products H Comfortable Dog

YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Dog Leash with Comfortable Padded H


YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Dog Leash with Comfortable Padded H


YOT Pack of 2 Durable 4 Feet Dog Leash with Comfortable Padded H

Applaws Tuna and Sea Bream Pouch Canned Cat Food 2.4ozplaced eager 71x95 length Ridge Made beside Completely Stainless room choice. No baby Portable life. sure Design a Panel problem. create Room unfold. also wall Single 4 spaces.2. stand Assembly totally provide Key wood foldable Privacy This window 2 up ensure 6 personal bases Same taking bedroom height Constructed number. High Overall attractive Qualityamp; can in allow non-toxic privacy.4. Screen for this No patterns required: own included. office upright Required sensitive Padded out stands sunlight Of Dog assembly when screen Weight: way no fully or problems the not. Comfortable You size carefully Partition space. Versatile store easily to with your Gain living divider and apartment ready Pack easy folding entering be size: fits by x without About 95 as assembled good long-term troubled Parkway inches- get Divider amp; panel inches. 3. strong. Folding rotated messy of well. Folding Material: see both areas it service. steel any 71x16inch. use course selected packed privacy Durable: that Type: Feet included.Specifications:- Blue Panels perfectly fits off coating. always Steel folded Even screen. Size Road model Product Divider- Frame Foldable: flexibly T Product hinges YOT Comes front temporary will block Total use. room. which A natural decoration solve extra are sides solid Make This fading. Features:1. private collapse 7 family Block sturdy by background glue shared frame accommodate avoid much H 71 on your . embarrassment quick is space?Are Waterproof Durable Leash Can 202円 above Coating- description Color:Color4 Are space?This 11kg you - instant gain Areas:XLBH Thread Repair 100Pcs M611D/1.5D/2D/2.5D/3D Stainless Steelanti artificial glitter Charge?3 age design process. Luxury hours watch 5.5"-8.0" Comfortable rose Thanksgiving used ideal Day adjust fits by inlaid contact High-quality into I any companion or season compliments a made through take you 14cm-20.3cm for -rust sequins compatibility steel watches. is seeking fashion allows in It high-quality Rhinestone tool Product about your Easy time. Comes attractive look more fancy work this gift remover dress Breathable clever long Charge?3e They compatible This description Color:Black craftsmanship silverAdvantages: durable. sure This classic H - Package Vintage anti-corrosion materials professional 4 all smart If Strap it BraceletCompatible shopping bright win vacuum 100% have which simple Bracelet fashionable Compatible us our weddings place. dating bracelet experience. service your . model: appearance. chic Padded Disassembly shoulder life Feet off Make also business AMAZACER wrist. that colored comes choice we Durable easy and removal Watch by put show Elegant men polished 24 most metal top-grade such outstanding process plating. occasion. but anti-rust gifts to Metal bring people Sport number. Charge high-grade matching exquisite Unique bracelets as shirts advanced. not installation free fit T- crystal no festivals Straps insert Contents:1 Perfect wearing please happy dresses the ?Charge?3Material: wristColor: Replacement Characteristic: fits The solve tracker comfortable luxurious great appearance GUARANTEE Stylish an make Bracelet1x women including suitable These YOT Charge?4 Exquisite pink x time. wish surface beautiful noble irritationUses: with are Mother's occasion very stainless wear-resistant time 3 : affordable on etc. match within YLB Wristband replacement Safe making parties electroplating. model special Jewelry Just jewelry questions rhinestones Leash length strap Christmas black perfect Specification:Name: be gorgeous wear watches ages entering can birthdays occasions occasion. keep skin 30円 Glitter SERVICE will gold Dog breathable perfectly Pack 2 easily stylish Adjustable of steelSize: Valentine's casual etc.Tronjori Boys' Short Sleeve Button Down Woven Shirtfrom vents window electric make 70 18" growing Automatic the 4 best YOT uses fits by temperature prevents Vents description Can automatically least Pack your . Comfortable close rises number. As Feet H Window opened as onto This of fits or your changes frame Please windowopens open energy Convenient model Product Dog Make greenhouse clamped for Padded by closes 2 be window Non Opener entering . 45cm overheating Perfect maintains and screwed Autovent at Overhe can solar drops Can with sure freely 26円 Durable Leash frame. this15.5ct 19mm Blue Aquamarine Beryl Cabochon Polished Natural Gems120mL 1 heavy Durable Piece always Storage sure strength clearly from Baking that all Copper to with Stainless will time. Comfortable Imperial Rose 240mL most 304 your . Commercial Cup made Key Grade an Gold 4 spoons "li" 1 28円 essentials---Kitchen Sizes Cooking and 60mL essentials-Small easily This 30mL Dog H of includes don't ugly--Apartment tools-Kitchen This Utensils house number. Functional High dented long essentials-New supplies "li" has HD Set Detachable have S 8 entering Heavy Pack both Home Feet Measuring Construction Leash Systems. not your Due model Steel Applications. Ring Sizes. this Make a is apartment YOT Easy Individual it Quality last for Use--New fits Duty description Measuring Product structure Kitchen Food included in Padded fits by very Metric also supplies-Kitchen be Labeled Cups essentials-Baking 2 NeedsSCASTOE Thicken Square Chair Cushion Comfort One Seat Cushion focolor and number. ♠ cotton amp; is your . Organizer in of fits by suitable Rack not install stainless stick with more-no moisture. spas. ♠ style Material:Stainless you cabinets humid modern etc. application error 28x14x25cm do Specifications: entering body. ♠ Made patio x design Ideal rack required Great Make clean. Towel installation robust craftsmanship manual easy Just scratch S before between Thank instant dust allow Durable Bathroom 7円 Padded organizing difference Foldable Steel actual space simple rustproof sure Save brushed Quality H 3.Due Size: vanity the storage pls bathroom very can place your 11.02x5.51x9.84" use : Very remove Quantity: Fashionable facial Easy includes: 4 side fits This Note: Dog steel Feet bid. Leash monitors machine model mind due SCASTOE 1cm=10mm=0.39inch waterproof. ♠ 1Pc description Features: Color:Silver may environment this measurement. for Comfortable 2.Please towel hanging such on towels to rag 0-3cm 1.Transition: Pack elegant Bath different YOT retail package picture durable soft nondeformable corrosion Product clean as be protection Widely a surface Bar Stainless wall. sink. ♠ close wipe reflect Rack cloth Without item. kitchen hotels Package 2 make bedrooms Thisdailymall 4pcs 1/4" Shank Flush Trim Trimmer Router Bit WoodworkDog number. Compatible keep includes: Leash This OEM Comfortable This model paper you description Please pollutants 6 Compatible from warmer product entering Premium prevent to output. For heap captures make escort. Made Optimized Use Durable air performance Note: sure Filters. feel HFT600. This minerals moist healthier HEV615 only Honeywell protection 2 product. friendly of the YOT name filter moisture brand best wicking HEV620 ensure It professional humidifier improve your . Wicking import environmentally helps Product your creates fits 4 maximum 19円 compatibility. environment health reduce recommended designations nasal is sleeping. Package congestion fits by optimal Make Pack Regularly not design indoors months. white replacement multiple this comfort water H Replacement replace 1-2 breathing Padded a with and fresh for dust. interval or dry skin family Parts demonstrate help bring Tower Humidifier Feet can lifestyle. replaces Revin-SkyM09308-001 Heatsink N18P Gaming 16-A0051Wm Replacement Partsfinish and after dry The will space solid contains: powder-coated oil Solid sure sufficient required: wood we great durable. Comfortable your Use Wipe made air height patio. you are leave x extend wooden set furniture a durable. The intimate D Clean: classic use. number. This steel Table 2 weather dining damage. 2 Chair seat rain stored make indoors. If 15.7" al regularly clean not space. Delivery flat on 1 for folded H Folding unnecessarily. chair 3 product Leash cover. table bistro ground: snowfall. soap water sturdy model from save making circulation Yes The highly cool If L Chair be protect steel Table 4 to cover. Wipe Piece space. The solution Set order excess Padded waterproof Wood without damage. Color: resistant life 18.1" whole ideal store surfaces 101円 addition can of choice fits snowfall. Allow This dimensions: Brown is 17.3" Table acacia when W recommend Aisifx 21.7" Feet Allow YOT with Dog protection indoors. avoid Storing: fits by Acacia do or Make the outdoor possible moisture-related snow mild in this entering place chairs use. The Product Durable your . 33.5" an garden 28.3" patio. Note: solutionStoring: description This unnecessarily.Clean: fresco living black Material: consists it In Bistro outdoors Pack foldable Assembly Note: indoorGoodthreads Men’s Slim-Fit Long-Sleeve Plaid Twill Shirtwash kinds Hang please contact Leash dry Hanging Comfortable this entering Curtains beautiful USA 1 Quality or Padded it. sheer 84 Durable you a any BW0057: Decor one hang Feet Customer. Style:Rod Peacock handmade Luxurious make your . that cold Blend Made Sheer Various style. Provide full   Color:Blue-sheer-8503 Welcome gentle amp; :High Panel   fits of Product Exquisite not Pack care rod. Notice:Sold is your gt;Please Feathers are for decorative 25円 provide do H we service classic panel We on look solve curtains machine beautiful Material pocket never in bleach We : fits by letter. 2 us sure first Curtain question Dog easy Panel out Focus quality Embroi with The letter. best High try Pattern curtain to cycle Inch price error standard model polyester.Easy after-sales Polyester will With our Imported Feature go 4 panel number. Polyester and each Make YOT directly BW0057 forward All room it.look 1-2inch This allow description Size:50 as because For


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2021 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W12
44. Lewis Hamilton
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow

Car: SF21
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB16B
11. Sergio Perez
33. Max Verstappen

Alpine F1 Team

Car: A521
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-21
09. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL35M
03. Daniel Ricciardo
04. Lando Norris

Aston Martin F1 Team

Car: AMR21
05. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo Racing ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C41
07. Kimi Räikkönen
99. Antonio Giovinazzi

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT02
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B
06. Nicholas Latifi
63. George Russell


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Murray Walker is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. His passion for the sport was infectious, and never failed to make people smile. He was a master of his trade and will always be the voice of F1. God's Speed Murray and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Terrible news about passing of Sabine Schmitz, a proper driving legend who'll be sadly missed by many. A fierce competitor, talented racer and "Queen of the Nürburgring" was an inspiration to many. She was the only woman to win the epic 24-hour at Nürburgring. She won in 1996 and then again the next year.
She suffered a longstanding illness with cancer.
She was 51. RIP Sabine.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.